When I first got into llamas, I read everything I could get my hands on regarding how to train them. While there are some very good fundamental techniques being advocated, none seemed to go beyond the basics of haltering, leading, trailer loading, and the basics of packing. And there was certainly nothing available to show a logical, methodical approach to training a winning performance llama for the show ring. Llamas are actually very cooperative animals if two things occur; 1) the llama needs to understand what they are expected to do and 2) the llama needs to be unafraid of doing it. The first part requires them to understand us, and the second part requires us to understand them. In the simplest terms, it means effective two way communication. Training a llama really boils down to one fundamental thing – communicating with your llama so he knows what your are going to do and what he is expected to do. There are three ways we communicate our intentions and expectations with our llama; verbal commands, lead rope commands, and our own body language / positioning. There are currently 38 verbal commands or words I have established as the core language I teach my llamas. These are broken down into 3 subgroups; basic, intermediate, and advanced.
It is important also to realize that no one single training technique will work on every single llama every single time. The more "tools" you have in your training "tool bag" the easier it will be to quickly change and adapt a training technique to the situation at hand. As per Albert Einstein "True insanity is doing the same thing over and over and expecting a different result." If what you are doing isn't working, don't keep doing it - try a different technique.